Towards Fully Automated Manga Translation
Abstract: We tackle the problem of machine translation of manga, Japanese comics. Manga translation involves two important problems in machine translation: context-aware and multimodal translation. Since text and images are mixed up in an unstructured fashion in Manga, obtaining context from the image is essential for manga translation. However, it is still an open problem how to extract context from image and integrate into MT models. In addition, corpus and benchmarks to train and evaluate such model is currently unavailable. In this paper, we make the following four contributions that establishes the foundation of manga translation research. First, we propose multimodal context-aware translation framework. We are the first to incorporate context information obtained from manga image. It enables us to translate texts in speech bubbles that cannot be translated without using context information (e.g., texts in other speech bubbles, gender of speakers, etc.). Second, for training the model, we propose the approach to automatic corpus construction from pairs of original manga and their translations, by which large parallel corpus can be constructed without any manual labeling. Third, we created a new benchmark to evaluate manga translation. Finally, on top of our proposed methods, we devised a first comprehensive system for fully automated manga translation.
Evaluating Agents without Rewards
Abstract: Reinforcement learning has enabled agents to solve challenging tasks in unknown environments. However, manually crafting reward functions can be time consuming, expensive, and error prone to human error. Competing objectives have been proposed for agents to learn without external supervision, but it has been unclear how well they reflect task rewards or human behavior. To accelerate the development of intrinsic objectives, we retrospectively compute potential objectives on pre-collected datasets of agent behavior, rather than optimizing them online, and compare them by analyzing their correlations. We study input entropy, information gain, and empowerment across seven agents, three Atari games, and the 3D game Minecraft. We find that all three intrinsic objectives correlate more strongly with a human behavior similarity metric than with task reward. Moreover, input entropy and information gain correlate more strongly with human similarity than task reward does, suggesting the use of intrinsic objectives for designing agents that behave similarly to human players.