RUSSIAN EMBASSY WEEKLY #108
Vladimir Putin: Russia and Africa are bound by traditionally friendly ties. Our country has consistently supported the national liberation movements of the peoples of Africa, we have made a significant contribution to the formation of young states and the development of their economies, as well as building up combat-ready armed forces.
Our cooperation, rooted in the period of the joint fight against colonialism, is strategic and long-standing. Of course, there are significant opportunities for intensifying Russian-African cooperation in various fields.
I would like to emphasise that the development of relations with African countries and regional organisations is among our Russian foreign policy priorities.
African states are confidently gaining political and economic weight, affirming themselves as one of the important pillars of the multipolar world order, and are taking an increasingly important part in working out international community’s decisions on key issues related to the regional and global agenda.
Our positions are close or coincide on many of those matters, which creates favourable conditions for constructive interaction at the UN and other international platforms.
We will certainly continue the practice of regular consultations at the UN General Assembly, we will strengthen contacts between our countries’ representatives with this organisation, and coordination with non-permanent members of the Security Council from among African countries.
This will allow us to boost our efforts towards ensuring common and indivisible security, and the formation of a fairer model of the modern world.
We are grateful to our African partners for supporting the resolutions that are of priority for us, namely, to combat the glorification of Nazism, the non-deployment of weapons first in outer space, confidence-building measures in outer space, and international information security.
As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, Russia is determined to continue taking an active part in charting the strategic line of the international community and practical measures as regards strengthening peace and stability in Africa and maintaining regional security.
We call for increasing the role of African states in the resolution of local conflicts. At the same time, we invariably advocate the principle stipulating African solutions for African problems, and we discussed this at length with our African colleagues yesterday.
We consider it correct that African countries are raising the issue of financial support for their peacekeeping efforts from the accrued contributions to the UN budget.
<…>We believe that trade, economic and investment cooperation is an important element in Russia’s relations with African countries. Last year, Russia’s trade with Africa amounted to over $20 billion. Moreover, it doubled over the past five years.
Russian exports are gradually becoming diversified, and their structure is changing towards non-resource deliveries. Russian companies have worked successfully in the region for a long time, mostly, of course, in such areas as geological exploration, mineral extraction, energy, oil and gas
At the same time, steps are taken to establish cooperation in high technology. Many of those present here took part in the Russia-Africa Economic Forum yesterday, where a lot of innovative ideas on the development of Russian-African trade and investment cooperation were voiced.
After the Summit a final declaration was adopted, which sets goals and objectives for the further development of Russian-African cooperation in politics, security and the economy, as well as in the scientific, technical, cultural and humanitarian fields.
A Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Russian Federation and the African Union on basic principles of relations and cooperation and a Memorandum of Understanding between the Eurasian Economic Commission and the African Union on economic cooperation were adopted at the summit in the presence of Vladimir Putin and Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. The leaders of Russia and Egypt made statements for the press.
READ ALSO: Bilateral meetings with presidents of
Kenya, Algeria, Sudan, Nigeria, Uganda, DRC, CAR, Ethiopia, Namibia, South Africa, Egypt and leaders of African regional organizations
Question: Security issues are particularly acute in some African countries. This affects the operation of Russian companies there. Are you going to raise issues of security at the Summit and propose measures to strengthen it? What help is Russia ready to provide to settle conflicts across the continent?
Vladimir Putin: An important element of Russia's interaction with African countries is regional security cooperation. Our Summit's slogan – For Peace, Security and Development – is not accidental. Steady progress is not possible without resolving these problems.
The situation in many parts of Africa is unstable: inter-ethnic conflicts and acute political and socioeconomic crises remain unsettled. Numerous terrorist organisations, such as ISIL, al-Qaeda, Boko Haram and Al-Shabaab, are highly active in North Africa, the Sahara-Sahel region, Lake Chad area and the Horn of Africa. Armed forces and law enforcement bodies of African countries cannot oppose militants alone and need significant aid.
We will further increase contacts between special services and law enforcement agencies of Russia and African countries in the field of countering terrorism, organised crime, drug trafficking, money-laundering, illegal migration and piracy.
In demand is the practice of training military and law enforcement personnel of African countries, including at a reduced cost and free of charge. For example in the past five years alone, more than 2,500 service personnel from African countries completed studied at the military educational institutions of the Russian Defence Ministry.
Our African partners take an active part in Russia-organised events, such as the International Military-Technical Forum and meetings of high representatives for security issues. Eleven African countries participated in the 2019 International Army Games. And the number of those willing to join them is growing.
Ultimately, all those programmes have the same goal – to help Africans solve existing security issues themselves, as it will strengthen African states, their sovereignty and independence. And hence, the world will be more stable and more predictable.
Vladimir Putin received the President of the Republic of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who arrived in Russia on a working visit, at the Bocharov Ruchei residence.
The two leaders discussed developments in Syria, including ways to normalise the situation in the northeast of the country, to counter international terrorist groups and advance the political settlement process.
In addition, the leaders exchanged views on the statements made by Washington and Ankara regarding the developments in Syria.
Russian-Turkish talks were held both in a limited format and with members of the two countries’ delegations. Following the international consultations, which lasted several hours, the presidents adopted a memorandum of understanding between Russia and Turkey and made press statements.
Vladimir Putin: <…> Mr.Erdogan gave a detailed explanation of the goals of the Turkish military operation along the Syrian border. We have noted many times that we understand Turkey’s desire to take measures that would guarantee its national security.
We share Turkey’s concerns about the growing threat of terrorism and ethnic and religious disputes in that region. We believe these disputes and separatist sentiments have been fueled artificially from the outside.
It is important to prevent members of terrorist organisations, such as ISIS, whose militants have been taken prisoners by Kurd military groups and try to break free, from taking advantage of the actions of the Turkish military units.
Syria must be liberated from illegal foreign military presence. We believe that the only way to achieve strong and long-lasting stability in Syria is to respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. This is our principled position, and we have discussed it with the President of Turkey.
It is important that our Turkish partners share this approach. The Turks and the Syrians will have to protect peace on the border together, which would be impossible without mutually respectful cooperation between the two countries.
In addition to this, a broad dialogue between the Syrian government and the Kurds living in northeastern Syria must be launched. It is clear that all the rights and interests of the Kurds as an integral part of the multi-ethnic Syrian nation can only be fully considered and fulfilled via such an inclusive dialogue.
Question: What specific measures will be taken to ensure the security of the prisons where ISIS militants are held so that they do not escape?
Sergey Lavrov: This territory is not in the zone covered by the Memorandum. But this problem does exist, and we talked about this more than once. We urge those who established and operate these prisons, including the external patrons of these people, to realise their responsibility for ensuring that this “pest” does not spread throughout the region. There is such a risk.
Question: Has Russia received confirmation of the Kurdish forces’ pullout from the security zone in northeast Syria?
Sergey Lavrov: The Memorandum becomes effective tomorrow at noon.
Question: What about the further development of the Turkish military operation in Syria? Is it being suspended?
Sergey Lavrov: It is being wound up, and everything now will depend on how well the agreements are implemented, including those on the pullout of the weapons, forces and assets of the Kurdish units in question, the so-called YPG militia.
Question: What reaction do you expect from the American side? Is it possible to say that now, after the adoption of the Memorandum, the US essentially ceased being a party to the settlement process?
Sergey Lavrov: Today, like all these years, we worked to restore sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic We worked very closely with Turkey and Iran in the Astana format, where crucial decisions were taken to end hostilities, create de-escalation zones, address humanitarian problems and create conditions for the political process. We are doing this in full conformity with the request of Syria’s legitimate Government, international law and the UN Charter. That is probably all I can say.
We are not acting with regard to the United States or its position. Firstly, its position is changeable and controversial. Secondly, the US-led coalition is in Syria illegally and this is common knowledge. I hope this understanding will finally dawn on some members of this coalition; I am referring to the need to change their policies and to interact with the Syrian Government.
On October 25 at the International Astronautical Congress IAC2019 held in Washington, D.C., Sergey Krikalev, Head of Manned Space Programs, Roscosmos State Space Corporation presented The Order of Friendship to Charles Frank Bolden Jr., former NASA administrator.
On October 25 year’s fourth Eurasian Intergovernmental Council meeting took place in Moscow. Prime-Ministers of Armenia, Belorussia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia. The leaders discussed topical issues related to the functioning of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and main results of the Eurasian Economic Commission’s work.
The participants focused on intra-union cooperation on the digital agenda as well as cooperation between the member states on veterinary medicine, agriculture and the alcohol market of the EAEU. They signed international agreements on breeding livestock and promoting union-produced jewellery on third countries’ markets.
A ceremony was held to sign the agreement on the free trade zone between the Eurasian Economic Union and its member states, on one side, and the Republic of Serbia, on the other. Prime Minister of Serbia Ana Brnabic was the guest of honour at the meeting.
<…> "Today, US Secretary of Commerce, visiting Uzbekistan, said that cooperation between the Eurasian Union and Uzbekistan would complicate the accession of Uzbekistan to the WTO. What can I say about it? This is an obvious application of the methods of non-competitive struggle
, and such statements are even more strange when said by the people who disrupt the entire system of the world trade and wage trade wars".
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo held talks by phone on Saturday, focusing on Syria and the relationship between Moscow and Washington, Russia’s Foreign Ministry said in a statement on Saturday.
They discussed the situation in Syria. The Russian side placed an emphasis on the need to refrain from any steps undermining that country’s sovereignty and territorial integrity," the ministry said. Apart from that, certain bilateral issues were touched upon.
Dmitry Medvedev: <…> "Today, US Secretary of Commerce, visiting Uzbekistan, said that cooperation between the Eurasian Union and Uzbekistan would complicate the accession of Uzbekistan to the WTO. What can I say about it? This is an obvious application of the methods of non-competitive struggle, and such statements are even more strange when said by the people who disrupt the entire system of the world trade and wage trade wars".
At the moment, Norway is celebrating the liberation of East-Finnmark from Nazi occupation. We honour the feat of valour committed by the Soviet soldiers, participants in the resistance movement and partisans, who drove the Nazi occupation forces from the Norwegian land 75 years ago. The participation in the celebrations in Kirkenes on October 25 of King Harald V of Norway, Prime Minister Erna Solberg, members of the Storting, and representatives of local governments testifies to the importance that your country attaches to this date. Russia greatly appreciates this.
During World War II, there were over 100,000 Soviet prisoners of war in Norway. About 12,700 of them died, succumbing to inhumane labour conditions, hunger and diseases. Many were executed for attempting to escape. More than 2,000 Red Army soldiers lost their lives during the Petsamo-Kirkenes Operation. I would like to convey our sincere gratitude to our Norwegian friends, who take good care of the many monuments and graves of Soviet soldiers, install new monuments and commemorative plaques, and help to carry out archival and field search work to identify the names of the fallen that are as yet unknown.
A common heroic past has always stood in good stead in the matter of promoting bilateral relations, which are in many respects unique. In fact, Russian-Norwegian ties have experienced ups and downs, but they have never been darkened by armed conflicts. In the Cold War era, Moscow and Oslo tried to find points of contact. It is in this way that responsible neighbours should behave, neighbours who share Europe’s oldest border. It is symbolic in this sense that apart from the liberation of East-Finnmark, we are celebrating the 70th anniversary of the Treaty on the Soviet-Norwegian Border Regime and the Settlement of Border Conflicts and Incidents.
Regrettably, the dynamically developing cooperation has slowed down after the coup d’etat in Ukraine in February 2014. Oslo has joined the anti-Russian sanctions. As a result, entire areas of interaction have been curtailed. I do not believe that this meets the core interests of our nations.
The increasingly active military preparations in areas close to the Russian border are a matter of grave concern. Norway is deviating from its “basic policy” by deploying in its territory training bases for US and UK military personnel, which are allegedly based on the “rotation” principle but are in fact permanent facilities. Norway is also increasing its military budget and upgrading the relevant infrastructure. In October and November 2018, highly aggressive NATO exercise, Trident Juncture, with the participation of personnel from partner countries was held near the Russian border. The building up of military activities in the Arctic and the striving to include the region in the area of NATO responsibility, all this is eroding stability and trust.
At the same time, we manage to maintain dialogue even under the existing circumstances and there are some positive shifts in this regard. In April 2019, President of Russia Vladimir Putin and Prime Minister of Norway Erna Solberg had a meeting within the framework of the Arctic: Territory of Dialogue International Arctic Forum in St Petersburg, which gave an impetus to ties in various areas. Related agencies are resuming contacts. Trade is returning to the pre-crisis level; border and inter-regional exchanges are expanding. I hope that by joint efforts we will manage to steer our relations back to a progressive trajectory. This will benefit both our states and citizens, and the entire Euro-Arctic region.
Gained during World War II, the invaluable experience of alliance and cooperation in the fight against the criminal ideology of misanthropy is particularly needed today, when the world community is facing numerous dangerous challenges and threats that can be effectively opposed only by working together. Russia has insistently called on everyone for a long time to start joint work so as to form an architecture of equal and indivisible security in the Euro-Atlantic region and Eurasia, based on the firm foundation of international law, primarily the UN Charter.
On October 26, at 11:39 Moscow time, an Aeroflot aircraft landed at Sheremetyevo Airport. Maria Butina, a Russian national who spent 467 days in US prisons on trumped-up charges, has at last returned home, to her homeland.
We fought for her early release. From the moment of Maria’s unlawful detention, we persistently pointed out at all levels – both in our contacts with US representatives and at key international venues – that the charges brought against the Russian citizen were absolutely far-fetched and contrived.
The partial admission of guilt that Maria was forced to make due to harsh detention conditions and the threat of a long prison term does not negate her total innocence.
Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Maria Zakharova emphasised: “Maria Butina is a true representative of civil society. She did not engage in anything reprehensible. The things that US authorities have been doing to Maria Butina are too much to take even by a person with special training.”
Fortunately, today this long and difficult period in Maria's life came to an end. We are sincerely happy to see her reunion with her family and wish her a speedy recovery after the hardships she had endured.
As you may have noticed, today the Foreign Ministry’s social media accounts changed their profile picture back to the usual one. However, we do not forget for a minute about our other compatriots who fell victim to police lawlessness and backstage political games, and have been imprisoned abroad on trumped-up charges. We will continue to take every effort to defend their rights and interests.
"We expect the US authorities and the public to condemn any manifestations and support of right-wing radical extremism in Ukraine," Russian Ambassador to the United States Anatoly Antonov told Sputnik. "We urge official Washington, civil society and human rights organizations, to finally give an appropriate assessment of the Neo-Nazi trends in Ukraine and the Baltic countries."
The first symbolic but important step, he added, could be their support for a Russian-drafted UN General Assembly resolution entitled, "Combating glorification of Nazism, Neo-Nazism and other practices that contribute to fueling contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance."
Antonov pointed out that this resolution has traditionally been approved by most UN member states, however, in recent years only delegations of the United States and Ukraine have voted against it.
"It's time to tear down this ‘wall’ immorally covering up the manifestations of Neo-Nazism. Such a step would be a tribute to the Greatest generation of Americans, who, together with the Red Army, saved the world from the brown plague," Antonov said. "We must remind the entire world that they were saved from the greatest evil only due to our solidarity in that fight, and only this solidarity is the guarantee of a secure future."
The United States, he added, should have already received information about the creeping rehabilitation in Ukraine of Third Reich accomplices responsible for the massacres of civilians - including Jews, Ukrainians, Russians, the Polish people and Soviet prisoners of war.
In addition, Washington should have already received news about the renaming of streets in Ukraine in honor of criminals, the erection of monuments in their honor, and the persecution of priests of canonical Orthodox Church, the envoy said.
Antonov noted that, just recently, Ukrainian Prime Minister Oleksiy Honcharuk attended the concert of the Sokyra Peruna group that denies the Holocaust.
"This cannot be left without reaction. Otherwise, the same will happen as what happened in Latvia where Minister of Defense Artis Pabriks went down to the level of publicly glorifying the Waffen-SS units," he added.
The US Congress has already started to realize the threat posed by the Azov Battalion in Ukraine, Antonov continued.
"The initiative by a number of American lawmakers interested in why the Neo-Nazi formation Azov is not included in the State Department’s list of terrorist organizations certainly deserves attention," Antonov said. "The rampant radical right-wing extremism has spread far beyond Ukraine itself. The [US] Congress, apparently following the US intelligence agencies, starts to realize the threat posed by Azov and Americans who had contacts with it."
Earlier in October, a number of US lawmakers in a letter to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo requested an explanation as to why the United States has not designated the Ukrainian ultranationalist militia group as a Foreign Terrorist Organization. The Azov Battalion, a right-wing nationalist paramilitary group, has been widely accused of committing war crimes in Donbas.
Antonov also described Washington’s support for Ukraine’s Myrotvorets ("Peacemaker") website as an outrage.
"The fact that the Ukrainian extremist portal Myrotvorets still operates under the protection of the American Cloudflare service cannot but cause outrage," Antonov said. "After all, it contains personal information on thousands of people disagreeable to Ukrainian extremists, including American journalists who visited the Donbas. Several people, who were on this portal, were killed."
Russia will continue to demonstrate a responsible approach and a readiness to an equal and constructive dialogue with the U.S. After the loss of the INF Treaty—a fundamental element of arms control architecture, it is vitally important to try and preserve the only Russia-U.S. agreement still in effect in this area—the New START.
It’s been over a month since Russian President Vladimir Putin sent letters to the leaders of the United States, NATO states and a number of other countries urging them to announce a moratorium on the deployment of intermediate-range and shorter-range ground-based missiles in Europe and other regions similar to our voluntary commitment.
Our initiative could help minimize the destructive consequences of the INF Treaty’s demise. For more than 30 years the treaty served as one of the key pillars of the arms control regime and eliminated two classes of ground-based missiles with ranges from 500 to 5,500 kilometers.
The way the U.S. arranged its withdrawal from the INF Treaty was also disappointing. Washington didn’t have to explain anything to anyone. However, it was clear that its one-sided steps to abandon the JCPOA, withdraw its signature from the Arms Trade Treaty, dangerous plans to further develop missile defense, including its space-based elements, refusal to ratify the CTBT raise concerns even among the closest U.S. allies. That is why it was so important to find a formal excuse to scrap the INF Treaty.
Russian Defence Ministry comments on the statement of the head of the Pentagon on the retention of the US military personnel group in Eastern Syria, allegedly “to prevent Islamic State access to oil fields”
A statement by the head of the Pentagon, M. Esper, about a certain need to retain a group of American troops in Eastern Syria “to protect the oil fields” from “Islamic State terrorists” should not be bewildering.
Absolutely all hydrocarbon accumulations and other mineral resources located on the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic do not belong to the IS terrorists, and definitely not to the “American defenders from IS terrorists”, but exclusively to the Syrian Arab Republic.
Neither in international law, nor in American law itself — there has never been and there will never be a single legitimate task for the American troops — to protect and defend the hydrocarbon accumulations of Syria from Syria itself and its people.
Therefore, what Washington is doing now, the seizure and armed control of oil fields in Eastern Syria, is, put it simply, an international state banditry.
The real reason for this illegal US activity in Syria lies far from Washington's proclaimed ideals of freedom and counter-terrorism slogans.
According to the presented images of the space intelligence of the Russian Defence Ministry, Syrian oil before and after the defeat of the IS terrorists on right bank of the Euphrates, under the reliable protection of the US military, was actively extracted and massively sent by fuel trucks for refining outside Syria.
At the same time, Washington officially announced sanctions for the supply of petroleum products to Syria, which apply not only to American companies, but also any others.
Under the protection of American military personnel and American PMC groups, fuel trucks from the oil fields of Eastern Syria are being smuggled to other states. In case of an attack on such a caravan, special operations forces and US military aviation are immediately involved to protect it.
The star of the evening – Alexander Kantorow – is quite young but already rightfully respected among the classical music fans. Even though Alexander’s family has been living in France for over a century now, his last name reminds us of his Russian origin. That is why we are also proud for this talented artist, who has already managed to release 4 albums and played together with many renowned orchestras.
Any award won in the International Tchaikovsky Competition is a great achievement for a musician, but a grand-prix is a whole new level. I’m confident that Alexander will make an outstanding musical career. For a winner of the Tchaikovsky Competition, that is just the way it works. The names of Tchaikovsky Competition prize-winners, who are now world-renowned musicians, speak for themselves: Van Klibern, Vladimir Ashkenazi, Mikhail Pletnev, Denis Matsuev and Daniil Trifonov.
The Tchaikovsky Competition is somewhat like Olympics in classical music – it is even held every 4 years. For over 60 years top notch musicians gather in Russia to judge the Competition, give the world new names and pass on the baton to future musical generations.
2020 will mark the 180th birth anniversary of Pyotr Tchaikovsky, therefore, I would like for Alexander and other prize-winners to devote as many performances to his works as possible.
Love for the talent of this great composer unites people of the most diverse nationalities. The language of music is universal and requires no translation. The Tchaikovsky competition, today’s performance and other international cultural projects are a foundation for building trust and mutual understanding in today’s unstable world. It is very important to support and develop cooperation in this area to overcome any differences.
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Susan Carmel, a recipient of the Russian Order of Friendship, for her support in organizing the 16th International Tchaikovsky Competition and tonight’s concert. I am thankful to the Ambassador of France Philippe Etien and his colleagues for the warm hospitality.
And now I would like to yield the floor to Mr. Valery Gergiev, the artistic director of the Mariinsky Theater and co-chair of the Tchaikovsky Competition Organizing Committee, who will say his greetings from the big screen.
The first expeditions along the Northern Sea Route were perceived as something unprecedented, heroic, and they actually were. Now the tourists have the opportunity to follow the same route as the pioneer explorers.
The Northern Sea Route is one of the longest navigable routes in the world and at the same time the shortest sea route between the European part of Russia and the Far East. Its length from the Kara Strait to the Providence Bay is 5,600 kilometers. The Northern Sea Route passes through the five seas of the Arctic Ocean (the Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, and the Chukchi Sea) and one of the Pacific (the Bering Sea). For several centuries, brave explorers have been looking for this "northern corridor", and today ordinary tourists can take a trip along the route. And travel in both directions — from east to west, and from west to east.
Question: During the StratcomDC Conference at the Embassy of Sweden in Washington, DC director of the Department of Homeland Security’s Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency Christopher Krebs said that “the Gerasimov doctrine” and the Russian mentality hold the desire to win for everybody else losing and “to see the world burn”. Do you have any comments on this statement?
Anatoly Antonov: Once again we hear blatant Russophobic, to say the least, lunges of high-ranking U.S. politicians against our country. Earlier they’ve been mentioning the “wrong” genes and made other statements more suitable for the era which we together with Americans ended aboard USS Missouri in 1945. It’s the first time though, when these kind of statements are made by such high-ranking public servant on the official venue – at the Embassy of Sweden in Washington.
Mr. Krebs’s statements strike the Russia-U.S. relations which are already complicated. It seems as if the officials try to set the nations of our countries against each other. Who’ll benefit from it? Certainly not the ordinary Russian and U.S. citizens.
By the way, there is no “Gerasimov doctrine”. This fake was long dispelled by those, who came up with it in the West. It is very indicative that this myth still lives on in the minds of U.S. leadership and affects their thoughts and actions.
The decision of our Swedish colleagues to host anti-Russian gatherings at their Embassy is both regretful and incomprehensible. We proceeded and keep proceeding from the fact that Sweden and Russia share good and neighbor relations and our common goal is to bolster international security, not create additional irritants in international relations.
Many Russian dancers, composers, artists, choreographers and entrepreneurs worked for the Ballets Russes, the Russian enterprise that conquered Europe in the early 20th century. These immensely talented people spread the fame of the Russian ballet around the world, making Russian culture fashionable.
READ ALSO: Ballets Russes: Who made the Russian ballet world-famous?
Russia has climbed three notches from last year to the 28th spot in Doing Business-2020 ranking, the World Bank said on Thursday.
Over the past year, Russia "made getting electricity faster by setting new deadlines and establishing specialized departments for connection works within the utilities of Moscow and St. Petersburg," according to the report.
Russia also carried out a reform, strengthening minority investor protections by requiring greater corporate transparency. Russia’s authorities made paying taxes easier "by reducing the tax authority review period of taxpayer applications for value added tax cash refunds and by further enhancing the 1C software used for tax and payroll preparation."
On October 14, 1962, 55 years ago, a US Air Force U-2 spy plane took pictures confirming the deployment of Soviet R-12 missiles on Cuba. This date is believed to be the starting point of the Cuban missile crisis, a standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union, which nearly turned the Cold War into an open confrontation.
One year before the crisis broke out the US deployed 15 Jupiter mid-range ballistic missiles near Izmir, Turkey, which were capable of destroying Moscow and other major cities in the European part of the USSR just within 10 minutes. Washington believed that the move would make Moscow incapable of a full-scale retaliation strike in case of war.
REC will host the 6th International Export "Made in Russia" Forum on November 14. IEF brings together the leading Russian exporters with foreign buyers and other professionals in Russian international trade. Every year the Forum proves its high acclaim by gathering around 3,000 participants, represented by 75% with Russian delegates and by 25% with their foreign partners. Heads of federal and regional executive authorities and administrations, exporting companies, development institutions and business associates, Russian and foreign experts are invited to participate in the Forum.
"Allies in Wartime: The Alaska-Siberia Airway During World War II." – now available online!
This publication by the Alaska-Siberia Research Center is free for the public. You are welcome to download and share this book with your friends, colleagues and affiliated institutions, and keep this title in your e-library.
This book is a collection of articles, essays and speeches that together illuminate a remarkable chapter in human history—the Alaska-Siberia Airway during World War II. The distinguished writers found herein include well-known historians, anthropologists, diplomats, and political leaders representing the United States, Russia, Great Britain, Canada and France—all among countries allied against Nazi Germany and its Axis powers during the war. Their inspirational memories and observations remind us of a time when cooperation and good will among peace-seeking nations arose victorious over evil.
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